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|Hinduism • Sikhism|
The Sain is a Hindu and Sikh caste or clan originating in India.They is also referred to as Sain-Thakur, Chaudhry, Sains and Nayee, etc.
The word Sain stems from the Sanskrit root Nay- which means to lead — stands for leadership. They are vedic kshatrias of the Chandravanshi lineage.
The Sain belong to a caste, variously called Sain, Mangali, Vostaad, Manthri, Nayee, or Valand.
The Sain were traditionally barbers but had other specialized roles. The earliest surgeons, like the ones tending to battlefield injuries, were barbers because of their expertise in handling the razor. They have also been associated with landowning. They were traditionally used as messengers and go-betweens in delicate matters. Sains acted as ambassadors between different states. They traditionally led wedding parties or carried messages between villages and communities. They are followers of Krishna and abide by the teachings of Bhagwad Gita, especially Samkhya yoga and Karma yoga. They are known for keeping the secrets, following a strictly disciplined life, and for keeping their body clean, active and physically fit.
The Sain community is listed as an Other Backward Class in various regions of India. These include:
Gujarat, where they are known as Valand
They are also found in the southern states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. The caste is referred to by different names in the different regions. In north India the caste is divided mainly into two endogamous sub castes: the Gole and Bhanberu. Kacchawayas (or chaddibechwas found in Delhi, Haryana and Rajasthan), Bachhas (in Delhi and Haryana), Tanwars in Rajasthan, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh, Ranas in Brijwasan, Gautam in Uttar Pradesh, Maansin Delhi, Haryana and Punjab, Dahiya & Mittalia in Haryana, Delhi, Chauhan in Haryana and Delhi, Dabas in Delhi, Dalals in Delhi and Haryana, Badgujar in Rajasthan, Sisodia in Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan, Gaur, Kaushik, Vats, Vashisth in Uttar Pradesh etc. Each of these divisions is subdivided into numerous gotras. There are Atry gotra.
In Bihar, the nayees have the surname of Thakur. In West Bengal, they mainly have Paramanik as surname.
In the state of Gujraat the Sains are referred by the name Valand. The Valand have several territorial divisions, such as the Soratia, Halai,Gohil, and Jalawadi. They are further divided into clans, called ataks, the main ones being the Vaghela, Parmar and Hanani. The Valand are endogamous and practice clan exogamy. They speak Gujarati and concentrated in the urban areas. The community is involved in the different trades, with many rural Valand have given up agriculture. Some were practitioners of Ayurvedic medicine.
In India occupation and profession is not restricted. Most members of the Sain community have adopted various professions in the public and private sectors, medical, bureaucracy, sports, engineering, police and defence services.